Different Stages of Chronic Disease and the Devices Used to Cure it
TYPE 1 DIABETES
A chronic disease where the pancreas produces minute or no insulin. It mostly happens in adolescence. Symptoms are frequent urination, fatigue, increased thirst, blurred vision, and hunger. The treatment goal is maintaining blood sugar levels through insulin therapy, regular monitoring, exercise, and diet. The prime age for getting diagnosed with type 1 diabetes is 13 or 14.
- More than 9 million people worldwide have type-1 Diabetes, of which 2.6 million people (29%) belong to low-income countries or lower-middle families, and this is expected to rise to nearly 18 million by 2040.
- Estimation also states that nearly 60% of people living with type1 Diabetes are over 40 years of age highlighting that it’s not just the youth who are affected by type1 Diabetes. Type1 Diabetes is only 2% of the total Diabetes in the world and the rest is mostly type2 diabetes
- Various researchers from different countries, namely Australia, the US, Canada, and Luxembourg, estimated that nearly 3.1 million people could been alive in 2021 because they faced a premature death due to lack of care for type 1 diabetes and as many as 700,000 died due to lack of correct symptoms diagnosis. Finland has the highest number of type-1 Diabetes in the world.
TYPE 2 DIABETES
Type 2 diabetes weakens the way body regulates and applies sugar (Glucose) as a fuel. It’s a condition where too much sugar starts circulating in the blood. High blood sugar affects and messes with the circulatory, immune and nervous systems. In type 2 diabetes, generally, there are two types of problems at work. The pancreas stops producing enough insulin essential for the body to maintain sugar levels. Cells responding to insulin weaken and takes less sugar which causes a deficiency of sugar in the cells. Type 2 Diabetes is also known as adult-onset Diabetes, but type1 and type2 is found in both adulthood and childhood. Type2 mostly affects older adults, but obesity in young children has increased tremendously, leading to more type2 Diabetes in younger people.
Type2 Diabetes has no cure; one can only pay attention to losing weight; eating a well-balanced diet and regular exercise can assist in managing the disease. People with chronic type2 Diabetes take insulin therapy and diabetes medication.
As we know, only 2% of total Diabetes is type 1 Diabetes, and the rest is type 2 Diabetes so these figures will emphasize on type 2 Diabetes.
- Presently, 1 in 10 people have Diabetes around the world, and nearly 537 million people between the age of 20-79 have Diabetes; this number will rise to 643 million by 2030 and almost 783 million by 2045.
- 6.7 million death was caused by Diabetes in 2021. This number indicates one death in every 5 seconds.
- Almost 966 billion dollars was spent on Diabetes, an increase of 316% from the last 15 years.
- Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) numbers are astonishing as 541 million people around the globe suffer from IGT, and the chances of these people getting typ2 Diabetes are high.
- China has the highest number of diabetics, nearly 141 million have Diabetes, and by 2045, China’s diabetes numbers will reach 174 million. Obesity, overweight, and physical activity reduction due to lifestyle changes, economic development, and diet are the prime reasons for such a high increase in diabetics sufferers in China.
CGM DEVICES IN USA
CGM measures the body’s glucose levels in real-time by noticing the Glucose in the tissue fluid. CGM reads glucose levels every 5 minutes, nearly 288 times per day. It requires three basic parts sensor, transmitter, and smartphone app or receiver.
Four companies manufacturing CGM devices in the US market are
It is an American Multinational Medical device and healthcare company, manufactures Freestyle Libre, which measures glucose levels continuously.
- The portfolio of Freestyle Libre consists of Libre2 & Libre3. Freestyle Libre was introduced in 2017. It is used in both Type1 and Type2 diabetes, reducing routine fingerstick checkups.
- Diabetes care has become much easier to regulate due to the introduction of Freestyle Libre. You must reapply the new sensor every 14 days to keep the Libre system working. It could only be used by adults (18+), but the newly updated Libre has made this age threshold to 4+ years.
- One of its side effects is inaccurate readings and skin irritation from the sensor applied to the skin.
- Next generation Freestyle Libre3 offers a great reduction in size, 70% smaller than Libre2, and the price is the cheapest in the market. The sensor was small, but now it is so minute that you forget you are wearing it. In May 2022, Freestyle Libre3 received FDA clearance, offering automatic alarms and regular monitoring without needing self-scans.
- Around 3.5 million people are using Freestyle Libre across the globe, and the device is distributed in more than 60 countries; so much market hold in just six years tells you the company has invested so much in research and development.
It is an American company that manufactures, develops, and distributes CGM systems for diabetes management. Dexcom 4 & 5 production was discontinued in June 2020 due to the introduction of Dexcom6.
- It is designed for type1 and type2 Diabetes and can be used by the age group above 2+ years. Dexcom 6 is rated as the most accurate CGM device, and it is worn on the abdomen and sends information to the connected device, phone, smartwatch, or tablet. The sensor of Dexcom6 automatically transmits data every 5 minutes.
- Its ability to complement other diabetes devices, including insulin pumps, is its plus point. One negative aspect of Dexcom6 is that its sensor needs to be changed every ten days.
- Dexcoms’ CGM for Diabetes company worldwide revenue grew by 17%to $ 696.2 million in the 2nd quarter of 2022, up from $595.1 million in the 2nd quarter of 2021. In 2021, it made $2.45 billion in revenue, up 27% from its $1.9 billion in 2020. Patient volumes in and outside the US are in the 30%-40% range.
- Dexcoms’ top achievement of 2021 was the data publication, demonstrating the effectiveness of its latest model G7 CGM sensor. The G7 device is 60% smaller than the G6.
It is an American medical device company. In CGM devices, it manufactures Guardian Connect System. Guardian Connect sensor is worn on arms and is used for both type1 and typ2 Diabetes.
- One of the advantages of using GCS is that it compiles time in a graph on the application software and informs you how long your Glucose stays in your ideal range on any given day.
- The only downside is that it is available for the 14+ age group. The sensor needs to be changed every week. The whole system is very costly compared to other devices.
It is an American technology-based company focusing on developing, designing, and distributing glucose monitoring devices for commercial purposes.
- Their Eversense CGM system is designed to continuously measure blood glucose levels for up to 90 days. Their system incorporates sensors, transmitters, and mobile applications.
- The only difference is that Eversense sensors are applied subcutaneously or under the skin. The best part is that its sensor is used for 90 days, whereas other companies’ sensor is only valid for 14 days. Senseonic’s annual revenue is $36.1 million per year.
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